Here are five major expenses that should be budgeted into the total cost of ownership (TCO) of your school’s technology:

1. Professional development. Make sure your technology budget includes enough spending for staff training. The U.S. Department of Education suggests that 30 percent of the total technology budget should be allocated for training.

2. Software. Be sure to budget enough for software, from network management programs to curriculum materials and other applications.

3. Support. Does your budget call for staff to keep the network running and to support those who use it?

4. Replacement costs. Don’t forget about the costs of replacing computers—the average life of even the most advanced system is just five years.

5. Connectivity. Be sure to calculate the costs of connecting all the schools in your district together, as well as to the internet.

6. Retrofitting. If you are building a new network, keep in mind the costs of upgrading electrical systems, cooling systems, and ventilation.