Enormous challenges for school technology leaders marked the year just ended–from shrinking state budgets to more stringent requirements for hiring teachers, educating students, and collecting and reporting school data under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).
Viruses, worms, and unsolicited commercial eMail (or spam) throttled school computer systems to an unprecedented extent. Digital copyright dilemmas cropped up on several fronts. And the largest single program for funding school technology–the eRate–was beset with problems of its own, culminating in a congressional probe into alleged instances of waste, fraud, and abuse.
The news wasn’t all bad. One-to-one computing initiatives continued to gain momentum in states such as Maine, Michigan, and New Hampshire. But not even this development was free from the impact of state budget cuts, as Michigan’s ambitious plan to provide laptop computers to all sixth-graders now appears headed for a 56-percent cutback.
In this special feature, the editors of eSchool New reveal their choices for the 10 most important school technology stories of 2003. How these stories continue to play out in this new year will have significant repercussions for school leaders nationwide.
10. Laptop learning gains momentum
It was a good year for proponents of one-to-one computing initiatives in schools. In March, a mid-year progress report on Maine’s groundbreaking program to give all seventh graders in the state a laptop computer said the machines already were benefiting students. Inspired by Maine’s success, leaders in Michigan and New Hampshire announced similar programs in those states. And, though Gov. Jennifer Granholm later announced her intent to cut $22 million in state funding from Michigan’s program, the initiative still appears to be moving forward, as eSchool News reported last month.
Maine laptop program gets high marks in mid-year survey
Gov. backs one-to-one computing in spite of looming budget deficit
N.H. follows Maine’s lead with school laptop plan
HP to provide laptops to Michigan schools
9. Digital copyright law challenges policy makers
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, which prohibits the production and distribution of any product that circumvents the security features of digital media, was intended to prevent the illegal copying and distribution of electronic content. But civil libertarians and some education groups say this controversial law stifles academic research and gives publishers too tight a grip over online content. The past year brought several key legal challenges and interpretations of the law, with broad implications for both students and educators.
Jury’s verdict puts digital copyright law to the test
Judge tosses lawsuit seeking probe of filtering software
Judge keeps student mum on computer system flaws
Hollywood turns thumbs down on DVD copying software
ALA: New exemptions to digital copyright law don’t go far enough
8. Feds, firms take steps to can spam
If it seems like your school computers have become overrun by spam, you’re not alone. As of last March, 45 percent of all eMail sent across the United States was spam, according to Brightmail, a San Francisco-based anti-spam company. That figure is up from 16 percent in January 2002–and it’s likely to be even higher today. For schools that provide students with eMail accounts, the problem is especially serious, because much of spam is offensive or pornographic in nature. In fact, a recent survey by internet security firm Symantec Corp. found that more than 80 percent of school-age children receive lewd, inappropriate, or potentially dangerous spam on a daily basis.
Lawmakers and industry leaders took a number of steps in the past year to stem the problem, culminating with the passage of a federal anti-spam law that took effect Jan. 1, 2004. But the new federal law overrides tougher state laws in California and elsewhere, and its critics say it doesn’t go far enough in protecting eMail users.
Feds, firms look to can ‘spam’ from computer networks
FTC: Open servers make schools unwary accomplices to spam
Survey: Four out of five kids receive inappropriate spam
eSN Analysis: State laws unlikely to stop spam
Congress OKs national anti-spam bill, overriding tougher state laws
7. Linux lawsuit looms over open-source movement
In March, SCO Group–which owns the Unix operating system–filed suit against IBM Corp. for allegedly embedding strands of Unix code into its open-source Linux platform. Although the lawsuit named only IBM, intellectual property lawyers say other organizations that distribute versions of Linux–including schools–could be forced to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars in fines and lost profits if the suit is found to have merit.
IBM denied the allegations and has filed a countersuit against SCO, but the multibillion-dollar legal battle threatens to derail the open-source movement just as it has begun to catch on among schools. Fortunately for educators, at least one hardware provider–Hewlett-Packard Co.–said it would protect its customers from SCO’s intellectual property claims if the software is running on HP equipment.
Lawsuit could threaten open-source movement in schools
SCO throws a legal scare at Linux users
Follow up: Novell challenges SCO in Linux fight
IBM countersues in Linux battle
Hewlett-Packard to protect customers from Linux claims
6. States still struggle with virtual school rules
Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin were among the many states where debates continued this past year over how to regulate–and fund–so-called virtual schools, which deliver instruction to students entirely online.
Though the number of students taking virtual K-12 courses continued to rise in 2003, questions still linger over how much to fund these projects, who should provide the instruction–and who should foot the bill. These controversies have reached their hottest levels when they involve charter schools operated by for-profit companies. Fortunately, a new organization, called the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL), now exists to help policy makers resolve these types of questions.
Old-school rules challenge cyber education in N.Y., Colo.
Ohio tightens enrollment rules for online charters
States grapple with virtual school legislation
Forum addresses virtual schooling myths
Ohio proposes new rules for online education
Funding fights hammer virtual schools
NACOL will champion online learning
5. Music industry targets illegal file swappers
In April, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) stepped up its fight against the illegal swapping and distribution of music files over the internet by suing four college students for allegedly offering more than 1 million copies of popular music online. Those lawsuits, which were settled for thousands of dollars each, marked the beginning of an aggressive campaign by the RIAA to eradicate illegal MP3 file sharing altogether by targeting the most frequent culprits.
The RIAA began filing copyright subpoenas with universities and internet service providers last spring, asking for the identities of students and other internet users suspected of illegally downloading and sharing music files online. The subpoenas have led to nearly 400 civil lawsuits against alleged file-swappers so far–but in a blow to the recording industry’s anti-piracy campaign, a federal appeals court ruled in December that the RIAA can’t force school systems, universities, or internet service providers to hand over the names of music downloaders if they don’t want to.
At colleges and universities, where the use of peer-to-peer file-sharing networks is a growing problem, the practice of swapping copyright-protected files online has put administrators in the difficult position of trying to balance students’ privacy rights with the need to enforce the law.
At least one school, Penn State University, has hit upon a creative solution. In an apparent campus first, Penn State will offer students free digital music from the newly relaunched Napster service, university officials said Nov. 6. The service provides music for listening and limited downloading. However, if students want to keep a song or burn it to a CD, they will need to pay 99 cents per song.
The new Napster service is modeled after the popular iTunes Music Store launched by Apple Computer last spring. But Penn State’s use of the service has rankled some students who are unhappy about having to pay for music they add to their personal collections. It remains to be seen whether other schools will follow Penn State’s lead–or whether the university’s students will adapt to a more limited approach to enjoying music online.
Students sued for alleged digital copyright violations
New online music store could tone down digital piracy
Music labels threaten to sue illegal file-swappers
Schools resist RIAA subpoenas
Schools use software, warnings to stop illegal file-swapping
Penn State launches ‘free’ digital music service for students
Court: RIAA can’t subpoena schools, internet providers
4. Cyber security takes on greater urgency
At least two particularly nasty internet attacks exploited vulnerabilities in Microsoft software last year, crippling tens of thousands of computers worldwide. The so-called “SQL Slammer” and “Blaster” worms and their resulting fallout–coupled with a report from the Bush administration’s national security team, which urged schools and other organizations to do their part to help secure the nation’s critical computer infrastructure from cyber terrorism–drew unprecedented attention to the need for better network security.
At a national ed-tech conference in October, the Consortium for School Networking announced a multiyear initiative, called “Cyber Security for the Digital District,” that will provide educators with strategies and tools to ensure the privacy of data and the safe operation of their networks. Microsoft also floated a number of possible solutions to the problem, from automatic software updates to cash rewards for people who turn in virus writers. Though reaction to these various ideas was mixed, most school technology leaders agree on at least one thing: that the current approach to network security–applying piecemeal patches as they are announced–isn’t enough.
‘SQL Slammer’ hammers home network security challenge
Feds recruit schools in cyber security effort
‘eMail spoofing’ threatens school computer networks
Computer worm exploits Windows flaw, snarls networks
Microsoft, schools mull security improvements in wake of latest worm
Security, assessment highlight Technology + Learning conference
Microsoft offers huge cash rewards for catching virus writers
3. NCLB requirements fuel–and steer–school tech use
In its second full year, the federal education law had a profound impact on which technologies schools purchased and how these systems were deployed.
Market research firm Quality Education Data (QED), for example, reported that school technology spending rose slightly in 2003, despite the fiscal crisis that plagued many states. QED attributed the rise largely to schools’ need to invest in new technologies to help them meet the data tracking and reporting requirements of NCLB.
In September, the federal Education Department (ED) announced a $50.9 million public-private initiative to post disaggregated test results and other school data from each state on a single web site, so stakeholders throughout the country could monitor the progress of individual schools and compare them with other schools in their state. Acceptance of this new tool remains in doubt, however, because most states already have begun creating their own tracking and reporting systems to comply with the law’s demands.
Besides helping school leaders make more informed decisions about students’ curricular needs, technology also played a significant role in helping schools meet the law’s new requirements for improving teacher quality. Solutions ranged from “virtual” job fairs aimed at helping schools recruit highly qualified teachers, to web-based systems that enable school administrators to gauge the proficiency of teachers in any subject area compared with state and national standards, so they can pinpoint specific areas for improvement and target their professional development accordingly.
One notable solution–a new internet-based program that allows underqualified teachers, career changers, and other professionals to bypass teacher colleges to become “highly qualified” certified teachers–made its debut Aug. 22 amid some controversy.
This alternative to traditional teacher-education programs, called Passport to Teaching, was funded in part by a $5 million grant from ED to create a cheaper, faster way for schools to meet the teacher-quality requirements of NCLB. But critics of the initiative–including professional teacher-education associations–say it’s a poor substitute for the rigors of traditional teacher-preparation programs, which often require practice teaching and mentoring before certification.
ED: Cyber schools key for NCLB remedies
Personalized learning services stand out at FETC 2003
Schools use technology to recruit teachers from abroad
Schools get help in meeting tech requirements of NCLB
Technology is one of few tools left to ease a worsening teacher crunch
Rural Alaska schools look to online courses for NCLB success
NCLB fuels growth in school tech spending
Web program gives fast track to certification
ED: Tech is key to rural school success
ED launches $50M new data-management tool
MDR: Schools that fail AYP are below average in tech use
2. Budget ax falls on ed-tech programs
Educational technology programs and initiatives were hammered by budget cuts in many states as lawmakers grappled with near-record deficits. A survey of budget data from 31 states by the State Educational Technology Directors Association revealed that state budgets for educational technology decreased an average of 25 percent in 2003, with more cuts expected in 2004.
In one of the most striking examples yet of how constricting state budgets have come to bear on school technology, the Texas Education Agency on Sept. 4 announced a major reorganization that includes the elimination of at least 200 jobs and the liquidation of its educational technology division, long considered a national bellwether for school technology planning and programs. California, Indiana, Maryland, Nevada, Oregon, and West Virginia are among other states where lawmakers and school officials have been forced to cut back or eliminate programs that supply new computers, internet access, or instructional resources to K-12 students.
Even worse, federal government spending isn’t likely to make up the gap as Congress struggles to pass a 2004 education budget. As eSchool News reported last month, the omnibus appropriations bill still awaiting Senate approval would cut some $92 million in federal ed-tech funds.
The bill includes level funding ($695.5 million) for the Ed Tech Block Grant program, which is given to states to distribute to local school systems, half by formula and half competitively. But it would provide only $20.5 million for the federal Star Schools program, nearly $7 million less than 2003, and only $10 million for the Community Technology Centers program, or $22 million less than last year’s budget. What’s more, the $62.5 million Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) program does not appear in the bill at all.
The fallout from these actions has forced school leaders to do more with fewer resources at their disposal. Among the more creative approaches educators have taken to raising additional funds: auctioning off surplus equipment using the world’s largest auction house, eBay.
Bush’s 2004 budget calls for $145M in ed-tech cuts
Bush administration: Study justifies cutting after-school programs by $400 million
Bush administration pushes $200M cut for voc ed
2003 AASA meeting focuses on how to do more with less
Budget ax falls on school tech programs
Schools turn to eBay to unload surplus items
State budget cuts shut students out of Minnesota Virtual Academy
eSN Exclusive: Texas cuts its ed-tech division
Ed tech in trouble in Congress
State ed-tech budgets are shrinking, survey says
1. eRate faces renewed scrutiny
The first sign of trouble came in September 2002, when the Federal Communications Commission’s Office of the Inspector General (OIG) released its semiannual report highlighting its investigations for members of Congress. The report said OIG was tracking 26 investigations of suspected eRate abuse at the time, 16 of which were initiated in 2002. The September 2002 OIG report led to another by the Center for Public Integrity in January 2003 calling the eRate “honeycombed with fraud and financial shenanigans”–which uncoiled a chain of events that would shake the foundation of the $2.25 billion-a-year program.
Reps. Billy Tauzin, R-La., chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, and James Greenwood, R-Pa., launched an investigation into the operation and oversight of the eRate, which provides discounts on telecommunications services to eligible schools and libraries. Hearings on the lawmakers’ findings are expected this spring. The program’s supporters worry that enemies of the eRate in Congress will use the investigation and its results to mount a renewed effort to kill the program, which is paid for by fees collected from telecommunications companies.
Responding to concerns about lax program oversight, the agency that administers the eRate took several steps to safeguard the program from further waste, fraud, and abuse. It tightened its scrutiny of applications, resulting in more than a billion dollars in funding denials last year, and formed a task force to recommend additional changes to the rules. Some changes already have been implemented for Funding Year 2004–but because they were made on the fly, as schools were in the process of applying (or preparing to apply), these rulings have merely frustrated and confused many applicants.
eSN Exclusive: SLD warns of eRate abuses
eRate bust signals crackdown
eRate faces renewed scrutiny after reports of widespread fraud
SLD denies $590 million in 2002 eRate requests
Lawmakers query FCC about ‘troubling’ eRate abuse
FCC moves to ban eRate ‘bad actors,’ approves wireless
Schools lobby to save eRate
Forum: Simplifying eRate rules will prevent abuse
Task force seeks comment on proposed eRate changes
Congress steps up eRate probe
eSN Exclusive:Big Blue claims eRate rejections are arbitrary and unfounded
eRate probe nets guilty plea
eRate agency could knock 3,700 schools off line
Feds reject Florida’s $7.4 million eRate appeal
The Institute for Educational Leadership and the Laboratory for Student Success have created a web site called e-Lead, a free online resource intended to provide states and school districts with information about how to provide better professional development for school principals. The web site suggests that professional development works best when it is focused on sound learning strategies, driven by a clear definition of leadership, conducted within the context of an overall plan, anchored by leadership standards, designed and implemented according to proven practices, and evaluated through processes that seek meaningful results. To help stakeholders select effective program options, e-Lead contains a searchable database of professional development courses complete with a comprehensive summary about each initiative’s design, implementation, and desired impact or effectiveness. Also, a unique Leadership Library feature offers annotated information about a number of leadership development issues and links to the latest information and resources.
In celebration of the Month of the Young Adolescent in November, the National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform welcomed visitors to take a series of online tours highlighting teaching and learning excellence in the middle grades. “For those interested in seeing innovative successful schools in action but who do not have the time or travel budget for a national tour, this cyber tour is the way to go,” said Deborah Kasak, executive director of the forum. The virtual tours–a feature of the Schools to Watch program, launched in 1999 as a national initiative to identify middle schools that are not only academically excellent, developmentally responsive, and socially equitable, but also have the organizational supports to sustain their success–invite education stakeholders to peek into the classrooms and hallways of four successful middle schools, located across the nation, to observe the practices and procedures that make them stand out from the pack. Members of the National Forum selected the schools based on the extent to which they met a number of criteria, including the promotion of academic excellence, developmental responsiveness, and social equity. The National Forum co-sponsors the Schools to Watch program with the National Association of Elementary School Principals, National Association of Secondary School Principals, National Middle School Association, and National Staff Development Council.
As a long-time reading instruction specialist, I must take exception to your rejection of the validity of standardized reading test scores (SRTS) in your editorial in the November/December issue (“Beware the beguiling idea”). Please let me explain why.
It is well-established empirically that SRTS correlate highly with judgments by teachers as to how well their students can read.
It is equally well-settled that SRTS are a more reliable form of reading performance measurement than are teachers’ opinions of the reading ability of students. That is to say, SRTS are more “objective” assessments of students’ progress in learning to read than are the views of this matter by teachers at large.
The cost-effectiveness of various kinds of reading instruction is best evaluated through the collection of SRTS.
No reputable reading instruction specialist I know of contends that SRTS are “infallible” evidence of students’ reading proficiency, your views to the contrary notwithstanding. However, SRTS are not a “murky gauge” of how well students can comprehend written material.
–Patrick Groff, Professor of Education Emeritus, San Diego State University
Aiming to make further inroads into the education market, two leading providers of Linux-based software have announced major discount programs targeted at United States schools. The promotions mark an attempt to shift education customers from proprietary operating systems such as Windows to less expensive, open-source alternatives–an increasingly alluring option for school technology leaders in light of waning budgets.
In November SUSE, a German provider of open-source software, launched the SUSE Linux Education Program, which provides students, educators, school districts, universities, and nonprofit organizations with 40-percent discounts on a variety of SUSE solutions, including the company’s Linux Desktop system as well as its Standard Server and Enterprise Server products.
“The SUSE Linux Education Program provides the education sector with the fastest growing high-end computing technology at an affordable price,” said Holger Dyroff, general manager of the company’s Americas division, in a statement. “We think this will help drive the penetration of Linux even further by exposing the next generation of programmers and computer users to the benefits and versatility of open-source software.”
The discounts are available through SUSE’s United States resellers, CCVSoftware and RICIS Inc.
On Dec. 3, North Carolina-based Linux provider Red Hat Inc. responded to rival SUSE’s announcement with a similar promotion of its own, intended to make its open-source software more appealing to schools. According to the company, students and staff members of qualified institutions now can purchase Red Hat Academic solutions at a “fraction of the cost” of proprietary systems.
For students, Red Hat offers its Enterprise Linux WS Academic Edition, which provides a desktop environment–including the operating system platform as well as personal productivity applications–for a subscription price of $25 a year.
Schools now can purchase Red Hat’s server software for just $50 a year. The Enterprise Linux AS Academic Edition includes applications for network infrastructure, web hosting, and High Performance Computing (HPC) server farms.
If a school or school system is considering a large-scale deployment of Linux, Red Hat recommends its Site Subscription. Priced at $2,500 per year, a basic package includes unlimited service subscriptions to Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS Academic Edition for all systems personally owned or operated by students and staff members. It also includes a Red Hat Network Proxy Server and network management entitlements, enabling institutions to simplify their support of all systems.
“This is a welcome move by Red Hat to enable universities to use premium Red Hat Enterprise Linux at a very low cost,” said Frank Starmer, associate provost for information technology at the Medical University of South Carolina. “We see this as a very rational pricing structure and are eager to deploy the [software].”
What makes Linux different is that unlike most proprietary operating systems on the market today, the source code for Linux is shared freely among users, who are allowed to add to or change it at will. This communal approach, proponents contend, can save schools thousands, if not millions, of dollars in total cost of ownership.
But while the operating system is free to users, skeptics of the open-source movement caution that integrating a Linux-based platform does cost money. Unlike a Microsoft OS, for example, the Linux platform does not come readily equipped with applications for word processing, eMail, and web browsing. Instead, companies such as SUSE and Red Hat sell these and other tools as bundled distributions to schools and businesses. The companies also offer service and support options to customers–all of which add to the solution’s total cost.
Emily Trask, an analyst with Boston-based Eduventures Inc., doesn’t think the discounts alone will be enough to lure most schools away from Windows or Macintosh systems.
“There are some interesting things happening [with Linux] that could offer potential benefits for schools, but we’re not really seeing widespread adoption as of yet,” she said, noting that K-12 institutions exist in a culture where reliability and support are far more important than flexibility.
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