The Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) is a program designed to fulfill the National Science Foundation’s mandate to promote scientific progress nationwide. EPSCoR’s RII grant program is meant to provide support for lasting improvements in a jurisdiction’s academic research infrastructure, its research capacity and capability in identified research areas, and, hence, increased national competitiveness. EPSCoR support is intended to add specific value to the participating jurisdiction’s academic infrastructure not generally available through other funding sources. Improvement proposals must describe the strategy and implementation mechanisms to develop, expand, use, and sustain the science and technology resources that reside in the jurisdiction’s universities. The EPSCoR program is directed at those jurisdictions that have historically received lesser amounts of NSF Research and Development funding. Twenty-five states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands currently participate. Starting with the FY 2005 competition, RII grants will focus on building the strength needed to develop collaborative efforts for the successful pursuit of significant regional opportunities having national importance. RII grants are 36- or 48-month awards of up to $9 million per award to support infrastructure improvements in research areas selected by the participating jurisdiction’s EPSCoR governing committee as having the best potential to improve future research and development competitiveness. Proposals for EPSCoR planning grants may be considered from new EPSCoR eligible jurisdictions. The planning proposal (no more than one per jurisdiction) may request support up to a maximum of $200,000 for a period of 12 to 18 months.