One week after Hurricane Katrina devastated parts of the Gulf Coast in the worst natural disaster in U.S. history, state and local education officials in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and elsewhere were hard at work seeking to ensure students affected by the storm could return to school, and a normal routine, as soon as possible.
Health and sheer survival, not academics, were the foremost concerns of families affected by the storm. But as residents evacuated those areas hardest hit by Katrina and found temporary shelter elsewhere, complex schooling issues awaited them.
Finding schools for students whose families were displaced or whose schools were destroyed, communicating plans with local school leaders and stakeholders, accounting for the whereabouts of all students in their jurisdictions, transferring academic records to students’ new or temporary schools, rebuilding schools that were damaged or leveled by the storm, these were just some of the challenges facing education officials on the Gulf Coast, neighboring states, and in states thousands of miles away. And technology would be called on to play a key role in nearly every facet of the response.
Scope of the destruction
Katrina damaged or destroyed schools in six Louisiana parishes and left more than 135,000 students in that state without classrooms, according to the Louisiana Department of Education (LDE).
An LDE spokeswoman on Sept. 1 said that all information education officials had at their disposal was posted on the department’s web site. The agency’s office was inundated with telephone calls as education officials tried to hold meetings to discuss their next steps.
“I implore superintendents around the state to take these children in,” said Cecil Picard, Louisiana’s superintendent of education, adding that his No. 1 priority was to get children back in school. “I have heard from many of them who are already doing so. To them, I say, ‘Thank you.'”
Louisiana’s Jefferson Parish estimated that some schools would be unable to open until at least mid-January. The parish included a list of preliminary status reports for its schools online. Sixteen schools are reported in usable condition, eight are usable with isolated problems, six have significant damage, and the status of 54 schools was still unknown at press time.
|Big Buddy program volunteer Ura Whitner hugs a 14-month-old girl outside a local shelter in Baton Rouge, La. The girl had been separated from her parents in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. The family was later reunited in San Antonio. (Associated Press photo)
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The Jefferson Parish school board was to meet Sept. 7 to discuss school system issues created by the hurricane.
Six of the nine schools in Louisiana’s Plaquemines Parish were under water at press time. Jim Hoyle, Plaquemines Parish superintendent, said in a press release that officials were working to create a new payroll system for teachers and hope to get some schools up and running within a month.
St. Charles Parish, La., schools were all closed. Education officials were told that power would be restored in one to two weeks, and they hope to resume classes shortly after power is restored.
Officials in St. Tammany Parish Public Schools aim to have schools open by Oct. 3. The parish has a temporary operating center in LDE’s Baton Rouge offices. St. Bernard Parish officials said schools most likely would remain closed throughout the entire school year, and employees are encouraged to find other employment.
In Mississippi, state education officials were still trying to evaluate the damage caused by the storm as of press time.
“We have 271 schools in 44 districts that sustained damage,” said a Mississippi Department of Education spokeswoman. “That’s almost 160,000 students. This is a devastation that our state has not seen before.” Mississippi education officials are working with neighboring states to accommodate displaced children, she said.
Henry Johnson, Mississippi’s assistant secretary over elementary and secondary education and the former superintendent of schools in that state, said that in five or six coastal Mississippi counties, half the schools that existed before Hurricane Katrina have been leveled. That other half, he said, are so badly damaged that it’s unclear whether they can be used this year.
Alabama state officials also were still assessing the damage there at press time.
Schools in Baldwin County, Ala., were scheduled to open Sept. 1 but were delayed owing to panicked residents lining up to buy gasoline, said Rebecca Leigh White, an information specialist at the Alabama Department of Education.
Mobile County was the hardest hit, she said, and officials don’t foresee those schools opening until at least this week. Students whose schools sustained damage will be transported to other nearby schools. “As far as a bigger scope, we are welcoming Mississippi’s and Louisiana’s displaced students into our schools with open arms,” White said.
Accommodating displaced students
With the work of emergency response teams winding down, the first priority for education officials was to ensure that students had some place to attend school.
Louisiana schools superintendent Picard urged parents to sign their children up for school in those districts where they had sought shelter, and he said the LDE would worry later about school records, waivers, funding, and payrolls. “Right now, I need parents and school systems to make sure these children have the stability of a classroom as soon as possible,” he said.
Displaced teachers will be needed in those school districts that are taking in students, Picard said, and the LDE encouraged any able teacher to apply for a job in the school system where they were taking shelter. The agency said it is setting up teams to work on issues such as payroll and teaching certificates.
School districts that were not affected by the storm, or that were only mildly affected, are opening their doors to accept students who were evacuated from their homes.
Louisiana parents who had to evacuate will be able to register their children for school in Lafayette, Caddo, and Bossier parishes, state officials said.
Parents who register will be contacted with information regarding what school their child should attend, said Burnell Lemoine, deputy superintendent and chief academic officer for the Lafayette Parish School System.
“We will assign them to current schools depending on where they are in homes or shelters,” Lemoine said. Officials said they had no idea how many new students to expect.
Lafayette Parish School System Superintendent James Easton said some schools in southeast Louisiana could be closed indefinitely because of the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina.
“We cannot allow these children to suffer any further by denying them an education. As long as they seek refuge in our parish, they may attend our schools, and they will be treated the same as any other students. We welcome them,” he said.
Easton said he had no idea whether his parish would be compensated by the state for serving these students. To help the transition, local families are being asked to donate uniforms and school supplies.
Joseph B. Morton, Alabama’s schools superintendent, issued a memorandum online stating that he is waiving the “usual and customary requirements for students who transfer into Alabama’s public schools from other states … due to circumstances caused by Hurricane Katrina.” Morton acknowledged that those displaced students most likely escaped the storm with little or nothing and have no way to access birth certificates, school records, or other such documents.
In Texas, Gov. Rick Perry promised that his state’s public schools would accept students from stranded families. That move came as New Orleans residents who took shelter in the Superdome were bused to the Astrodome in Houston, Texas, where officials said Houston schools were preparing to accommodate these displaced children.
Perry said he knew an influx of students would strain his schools, but he assured school leaders they would get help with textbooks, transportation, food, and waivers on class sizes.
The Texas Education Agency announced on its web site that children of families who have temporarily relocated to Texas will generally meet the definition of “homeless,” and federal law entitles those students to enroll in the school district in which they are physically present without having to document residency in the district.
“We will do everything we can to welcome these students and return some form of stability to the lives of these youngsters,” said Shirley J. Neeley, the Texas commissioner of education. Neeley predicted that thousands of storm refugees would be enrolling in Texas schools, and most within the Houston area.
As the enormity of the storm’s fallout becomes clearer, schools and colleges in states such as Georgia, Kansas, Ohio, Virginia, and Tennessee also pledged to enroll displaced students.
Dozens of colleges around the country said they would help displaced students find spaces, and they have extended deadlines, waived application fees, and promised to streamline paperwork. The U.S. Department of Education (ED) also pledged to relax student-loan guidelines to help transferring students.
The National Association for College Admission Counseling started an online message board for updates on college conditions and options for displaced students. People can ask questions or post the status of a school on the boards. The organization’s web site urges colleges and universities to be flexible with their admissions process for students from hurricane-affected areas.
To ease the burden on overcrowded institutions, some online schooling programs are stepping up and offering their services, too.
Park University, which has 24,272 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate degree programs at 42 campuses and online, is offering its online classes to displaced students. The school will waive fall 2005 tuition fees for online undergraduate and graduate classes to students currently enrolled at accredited colleges and universities in the affected areas. Students may enroll for up to six credit hours based on course availability. The university has two fall terms, the second of which begins on Oct. 24, and students still have time to enroll.
At press time, no displaced students had enrolled, but a Park University spokeswoman said the school has people on staff ready to assist any interested students. Registration will still be open in the coming weeks, giving students time to adjust and recover from the hurricane, she said.
The University of New Orleans said it hoped to have internet classes ready in October and satellite campuses ready as soon as possible.
“Children are being dislocated, literally,” said Ray Simon, deputy education secretary at ED. “They’re homeless. They’re traveling hundreds of miles to find temporary homes, which means they will also have to travel several hundred miles to find schools.”
Once their students have a place to attend school, education officials in the affected states face an enormous task: Transferring students’ records to the appropriate institution and accounting for their whereabouts.
The LDE is making student records available to all of its school systems, so parishes taking in students have a way to track these students for funding purposes. The agency also is working to establish direct points of contact for every superintendent in the state, so that one person within the agency can take their calls.
In his letter to school leaders, Picard said Louisiana is sending all operating school districts a database containing Student Information System (SIS) and Student Transcript System (STS) data. These databases include basic statistics such as demographics, enrollment, high school transcripts, and class schedule information for public school students in the affected parishes of Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, and St. Tammany.
Local parishes in Louisiana will be responsible for tracking students’ whereabouts, but the LDE is still working out that process, said an agency spokeswoman.
Alabama’s White said an online data-collection program used by that state’s public schools will be used to track displaced students. In 2003, Alabama became one of the first states in the nation to roll out an online SIS in all of its public schools statewide, and that system–from the Mobile-based company Software Technology Inc. (STI)–will be used in the effort.
“We’ll input all their data and code those [displaced] students with a special priority,” White said.
A spokeswoman for the Mississippi Department of Education said her agency is taking every step to ensure that student records are maintained. If a school’s records were lost or destroyed, she said, the department will work with school leaders to create new records using all available information, including data from the state’s SIS.
Those schools devastated by Katrina and the schools scrambling to help them will receive unprecedented leeway in complying with the nation’s top education law.
Federal education leaders said Aug. 31 that they will consider broad requests for relief from states in the overwhelmed Gulf Coast–meaning schools could get significantly more time to raise yearly test scores or to ensure that all their teachers are highly qualified.
“You can be assured that the red tape will be put in the drawer,” said ED’s Simon after taking part in a White House meeting about the hurricane response.
Hundreds of thousands of displaced students are expected to be attending school in a different district, if not a different state, this fall. Education officials also pledged to relax rules on college aid, including timelines for students to pay their loans.
ED told school chiefs in Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas that they could expect fast, streamlined relief. Education leaders in these states are still figuring out what kind of help they will seek, but they are expected to jump on the department’s offer to reconsider waivers under the No Child Left Behind Act.
Louisiana state education officials started meeting Aug. 31 to discuss long-term effects to public schools in the devastated areas. There is a process by which the state Legislature can waive the required number of days in a school year when a natural disaster forces schools to close, said Meg Casper, an LDE spokeswoman.
Joseph B. Morton, Alabama’s state superintendent, is also waiving the usual requirements for students transferring into state public schools, and Mississippi is expected to do the same.
Communication challenges and infrastructural repairs
Adding to the chaos and confusion that school officials and stakeholders faced in Katrina’s wake was the destruction of telephone systems and other technology infrastructures that enabled communication.
Downed telephone lines made communication difficult, if not impossible, for school and law-enforcement officials.
The storm knocked out the telephone system on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Mississippi. New Orleans police officers took turns talking on a single radio channel with their walkie talkies. The Mississippi National Guard sent runners back and forth among commanders with information, while officials in other areas relied on text messaging and other satellite-based communications.
Alabama’s White added that limited working phones and electricity have hampered landline communication in Mobile, and that school system public information officers and superintendents were dealing directly with the media to spread the word on current conditions.
The LDE Call Center took calls from parents, teachers, and other school employees and answered approximately 4,000 calls as of Sept. 4. The agency’s web site has been updated daily with the latest information from school systems hit hardest by the hurricane.
The New Orleans Public School System’s offices were inaccessible as of press time. Officials were unable to conduct payroll operations but were searching for ways to process payments to employees as soon as possible. Health insurance benefits remained intact. A toll-free hotline has been set up for employees to get information, and employees are encouraged to leave their contact information.
Mississippi school employees can register their basic personal and contact information online or over the telephone. The state has an interactive survey online where school employees can enter information and also make note of any concerns or immediate needs they have. Once employees are registered, the state’s education department will coordinate communication efforts between displaced employees and their school districts.
Many technology companies and service providers are stepping up to help improve communication in the affected areas. Qwest Communications is sending 2,000 calling cards so affected residents can call friends and family. The company also donated $230,000 to the Red Cross to train volunteers.
Comcast is donating $10 million in advertising time to public service announcements. The Intel Foundation donated $1 million to the Red Cross and is matching employee donations.
Restoring phone service isn’t merely a matter of waiting for the flood waters to recede and restoring power. While many cables might be salvageable, the electronics that pass the signals across those lines will need to be replaced.
“It’s essentially analogous to putting a PC in your bathtub,” said Jim Gerace, a spokesman for Verizon Wireless.
School districts are still assessing the damage to their schools, and the technology infrastructure in many schools–such as computers, servers, and telephone and Internet Protocol (IP) network switches–likely will have to be replaced.
As of press time, school officials in the affected areas had no early estimates of what it would cost to replace their technology systems–though it could easily reach hundreds of millions of dollars.
One program that might be called on to help in the rebuilding process is the eRate, the federal program that provides up to $2.25 billion in telecommunications discounts to schools and libraries each year.
When asked whether eRate deadlines might be extended or waived, or special funding set aside, for schools impacted by the hurricane, Tanya Sullivan, senior director of education and communications for the Schools and Libraries Division of the Universal Service Administrative Co., which administers the eRate, referred all questions to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which makes the program’s rules.
FCC officials were not available for comment before deadline.
(Material from the Associated Press was used in this report.)
Louisiana Department of Education
Mississippi Department of Education
Alabama Department of Education
Texas Education Agency
U.S. Department of Education
National Association for College Admission Counseling