The New York Times reports that President Bush’s $1 billion-a-year initiative to teach reading to low-income children has not helped improve their reading comprehension, according to a Department of Education report released May 1. The program, known as Reading First, drew on some of Bush’s educational experiences as Texas governor, and at his insistence Congress included it in the federal No Child Left Behind legislation that passed by bipartisan majorities in 2001. It has been a subject of dispute almost ever since, however, with the Bush administration and some state officials characterizing the program as beneficial for young students, and Congressional Democrats and federal investigators criticizing conflict of interest among its top advisers. "Reading First did not improve students’ reading comprehension," concluded the report, which was mandated by Congress and carried out by the Department of Education’s research arm, the Institute of Education Sciences. "The program did not increase the percentages of students in grades one, two or three whose reading comprehension scores were at or above grade level."