Government would fund public preschool for any 4-year-old whose family income is 200 percent or less of the federal poverty level—a more generous threshold than the current Head Start program, which generally serves kids from families below 130 percent of the poverty line. All 50 states and the federal government would chip in.

Obama also is proposing letting communities and child-care providers compete for grants to serve children 3 and younger, starting from birth. And once a state has established its program for 4-year-olds, it can use funds from the program to offer full-day kindergarten, the plan says.

Still missing from Obama’s plan are any details about the cost, a key concern among Republicans. The White House says federal investment in Head Start, an $8 billion program that serves almost 1 million kids, will grow. But Obama’s aides have stressed that the new programs would not add to the nation’s nearly $16.5 trillion debt.

“The last budget had over $1.5 trillion of mandatory and revenue savings, things like reductions in entitlements, closing loopholes,” Jason Furman, a deputy director at the National Economic Council, told reporters Feb. 13. He said the new initiatives would be smaller than that.

If the White House wants to move ahead, officials are going to need help from the states to provide political cover and dollars alike. House Speaker John Boehner said that involving the federal government in early childhood education was “a good way to screw it up.” The Republican chairman of the House committee overseeing education policy was cool toward the proposal and was unlikely to approve new spending on it. And even Obama’s allies acknowledged there was little Washington could do without governors’ help.

“We can all agree on the importance of ensuring children have the foundation they need to succeed in school and in life,” said Rep. John Kline, R-Minn., chairman of the House Education and the Workforce Committee. “However, before we spend more taxpayer dollars on new programs, we must first review what is and is not working in existing initiatives, such as Head Start.”

Obama will outline details about the plan’s cost when he sends his 2014 budget proposal to Congress next month, Furman said. Ahead of that, the White House and Congress are weighing whether to let the deep automatic spending cuts take hold on March 1. If that happens, some 10,000 teachers could be out of work and 70,000 students could be kicked out of Head Start programs, the White House has warned.

The cuts also would force an additional 14,000 Head Start workers to be laid off and would mean 1.2 million students from low-income families would have their schools’ funding cut. Washington also would stop paying its share of 7,200 special-needs educators’ salaries.

The federal government doesn’t directly pay the salaries of those workers but sends money to states based on the number of students in specific categories, such as those with learning disabilities or from at-risk communities. The states generally dole out those dollars to the individual districts based on the schools’ share of those students.

The automatic, across-the-board budget cuts were designed to kick in only if lawmakers failed to reach a broad agreement to reduce the nation’s debt.

“Should these cuts occur, they would be harmful not only to our agency, but to critical domestic and defense priorities across the government and across the country,” Duncan told Education Department employees last week, warning they might be forced to take unpaid leave to deal with the budget crunch.

(Next page: What research says about Head Start’s effectiveness)