The Gamification of Education

See the full infographic by Knewton here: https://www.knewton.com/infographics/gamification-education/

This is an offshoot of the studies into the effects of video games on the brain and involves adapting the current curricula to utilize the neuroscientific attraction that video games pose, to engage students in a way that current teaching methods do not.

In our contemporary society, it is seemingly impossible to engage students these days as traditional education is in direct competition with over-stimulatory screen time by way of television, smart phones and tablets. These technologies are effectively changing the way our children think and compute and hence the education system should change with it.

Teachers are increasingly utilizing tools such as video games to deliver lessons such as mathematics, reading and computer literacy in a format that holds their students’ interest. Many grasp the concept of gamification of education as the future of education and providing a more active platform to engage students and develop the technological skills that they will need to succeed in the modern world. [8]

Gamification utilizes the cognitive engagement that gamers experience to apply these concepts to an educational context to facilitate learning and influence student behavior. This involves incorporating certain elements of motivation to engage students. These include:

  • Narrative
  • Immediate feedback
  • Fun
  • “Scaffolded learning” with incrementally increasing challenges
  • Mastery (for example, in the form of levelling up)
  • Progress indicators (for example, through points/badges/leaderboards, also called PBLs)
  • Social connection
  • Player control

A combination of these elements promotes the success of gamification and results in an engaged and subsequently educated student.

As with all things, there is the proviso that each child learns differently and this needs to be taken into consideration and the unique needs of students addressed effectively. [7]

There are many conceivable benefits of this education tool, including the fact that students feel ownership over their learning and thus feel a sense of responsibility and accountability which are motivating factors.

The less rigid atmosphere with regard to failure also inspires certain individuals, especially those with problems with failure, to keep trying. Visible motivators such as progress indicators are encouraging and allowing students to explore their creativity through various characters and roles inspires a more fun approach and hence a greater cross section of participation than what a teacher would usually receive under normal circumstances.

Students who typically regard themselves as poor students and do not want to be perceived as “nerds” typically excel at this type of learning. Surveillance by teachers reported that it was the children at the lower end of the academic performance spectrum that benefited most from these games. [7]

The gamification of education can be used to adapt grading format, change the classroom dynamic, as well as changing the structure of the class. For example, a student might be requested to “embark on a quest” instead of just completing an assignment and groups may be referred to as “guilds” to reinforce the narrative of the lesson. This has proven to be a strong motivator.

Examples of successful implementation of this mode of practice include Quest to Learn (Q2L) which was a gamified curriculum offered to sixth graders of a New York public school. In science class, for instance, students were tasked to help a shrunken scientist navigate the human body successfully. [7]

Another excellent example of an application of this theory is Minecraft. This is a game in particular where the possibilities are infinite, it encourages creative exploration and teachers can subsequently plan lessons around a theme and allow the students to create worlds around a specific historical event for example.

This virtual learning lab can allow children to excel at the mathematical and physical science skills it challenges them with, as well as fostering collaboration with other students. There is even a Minecraft Education Edition development specifically for schools for this exact prospect and is designed to integrate into the curriculum.

The Shortcomings of Video Games in Education

See the full infographic by EdTechReview here: http://edtechreview.in/trends-insights/trends/661-video-games-in-school-infographic

There is research regarding the role of video games in improvement of classroom performance and academic achievement, but not enough of it. Further research is necessary to prove whether there is indeed a positive correlation between video games and heightened academic accomplishment.

The parallels we have drawn between improved cognitive skills and video games, although we can logically extrapolate that improved cognitive skills will translate to classroom achievement, can only suggest at the academic developments we seek. [8]

It’s widely known that video games can be expensive making them out of reach for those full classrooms with tight budgets. Video games require expensive equipment and specialized technology as well as internet connectivity. From a human resource perspective, personnel would require specific training which can all cost more than most schools can afford.

There are factions who dispute the relevance of video games to everyday life, stipulating that they are just illusions and do not relate to real life situations and thus skills acquired as a result of video games cannot be inferred and are meaningless.

But counter arguments cite research that demonstrates precisely the opposite. The disadvantage here is therefore the mixed reports on the relevance of video games.

Furthermore, the oversimplification of complex emotional, social and political systems within the game is criticized as objectors state that life cannot logically correspond with the simple reasoning of the video game. Additionally, the lack of context and consequence in real life may have negative implications for the players as they do not have a “reset” button in everyday life.

There are various ethical and social implications of using video games as educational tools. If we accept the research that video games are indeed effective in changing neural processes, then we have to consider that they may alter these processes in unintended ways.

People react to video games in different ways depending on a host of variables, including the type of game, the target population and the desired outcome of the game. Although the evidence suggests that the games designed for educational purposes are effective, many of the trials conducted lack consistency, noted Martha Farah, Annenberg Professor of Natural Sciences and director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience and Society at the University of Pennsylvania, and real world replication remains an unknown with methodologically flawed studies.

Farah also adds controversy to the field by stating that some leading researchers have conflicts of interest as they have aspirations of commercialization once positive results are found.

Due to the ability of video games to alter neural processes, transparency on the part of game designers regarding the game’s function and proposed effect needs to be apparent. [5]

As previously mentioned, certain design features of video games promote addiction in susceptible individuals. The games are designed to present challenges, but not too challenging to deter gamers as well as offer rewards for task completion. The psycho-physiological mechanisms underlying video game addiction are mainly stress-coping mechanisms, emotional reactions, sensitization and reward and long term gaming may lead to endogenous changes in the reward system of the brain.

This increased release of dopamine is the brain’s reward response to achievement of a challenge working as a positive reinforcement for good behaviour, choices or actions, thus the brain wants to repeat those actions and receive more dopamine induced pleasure. This feedback loop is what causes gamers to continuously play video games wherein virtual challenges accomplished result in the self-same release of dopamine which stimulates the brain’s pleasure response, which in turn results in an increase in gaming to maintain that feeling and resultant compulsive, addictive gaming. [5]

Conclusion

In the final analysis, although we can definitely see the niche in the educational system for a tool such as this, the education system needs to take into account the types of games they are exposing our children to.

The observations in brain mechanics that we see with concentrated video game use proves how experience modulates brain development. This, perhaps, should give us pause when considering the use of violent video games and the effect they can have on developing brains.

The use of video games, typically in early adolescence, is a highly debated topic with one sector promoting its use due to its cognitive enhancing properties, whilst the other component supporting the hypothesis that early exposure to video games increases aggressive behavior and desensitization to violence.

From an exclusively educational perspective, video games inspire improved participation and experiential learning, which they offer through engagement and exploration, enriching social and emotional well-being whilst providing cognitive benefits.

In spite of this, video games cannot be treated as a panacea for the failings of the traditional education system. If anything, they present a valuable supplementary tool to be used in conjunction with current methods. Video games cannot replace teachers and resources but do have merit with students that do not respond well to traditional teaching methods. [8]

Approximately 60 percent of educators are now utilizing digital games on a weekly basis to aid teaching, with 18 percent using them daily according to a 2017 nationwide survey.

In addition, teachers reported using video games weekly to evaluate student progress and level of understanding. These survey findings have sparked an interest is the use of video games as an educational tool and has instigated the consideration for legislating a pilot program for interactive learning games in schools. [9]

This forward-thinking approach is the very catalyst that this educational approach needs in order to cement or reject its place in education.

Further research is essential and as Douglas Clark, Professor of the Learning Sciences and Science Education at Vanderbilt University states, the research needs to be refined to investigate exactly which aspects and design of video games function best at improving the learning abilities of students.

References

  1. Abbot, A (2013), Gaming improves multitasking skills, Journal of Nature Vol 501 (7465), McMillan
  2. Bergland, C (2013), Video Gaming Can Increase Brain Size and Connectivity, Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers
  3. Cutter, A, Michael F. Young, Stephen Slota, , Gerard Jalette, Greg Mullin, Benedict Lai, Zeus Simeoni, Matthew Tran, and Mariya (2012). Our princess is in another castle: A review of trends in serious gaming. Review of Educational Research, 82(1), 61–89.
  4. Ganong (2010): Review of Medical Physiology, 23rd Edition, McGraw Hill, USA
  5. National Academic Press (2015), The Neuroscience of Gaming. Workshop in Brief, Institute of Medicine, Washington (DC)
  6. Novotnev, A (2015), Gaming to learn, American Psychological Institution, Vol 46, no. 4
  7. Malone, T. W. (1981). What makes things fun to learn? A study of intrinsically motivating computer games.Pipeline, 6(2), 50
  8. Malykhina, E (2014), Fact or Fiction? Video Games Are the Future of Education, Scientific American, Nature America
  9. Survey Report (2017), Digital Game Use: Teachers in the Classroom, University of Michigan

[Editor’s note: This post originally published on The Gizmo Life.]

About the Author:

Tamara Sneyd is a Science Graduate currently living in South Africa and writing full time.