It can be helpful to remember these focus areas as the four Cs of 21st-century skills when outlining your PBL approach and activities:
• Critical thinking
Lessons that require students to tap into all four skill areas simultaneously are most effective for immersing them in the kind of real work environment that they will soon enter.
Implement best practices for PBL to flourish
The core of every project-based lesson is a cooperation between students and teachers to answer the question, “How do we work together to solve problems?”
Finding the answer should involve all four Cs: creativity helps us imagine an effective solution, because there isn’t usually just one correct way to solve a project-based question. Critical thinking draws the connection between the project and real world, addressing why it matters. Finally, collaboration and communication are both required of every team member in order to incorporate the best of everyone’s ideas in a collective solution.
Let’s break down why each of these skills are critical to students’ lifelong development:
• Problem-solving in the context of a specific project forces students to assess their metacognitive strategies, or way of thinking, and in turn develop a greater understanding of how they learn. With this awareness, students can visualize how to navigate the path to success through any challenge, in or out of school.
• Students create and internalize productive work habits, especially the organizational and workflow skills required to work on a team and find applicable answers.
• After gaining the knowledge, awareness and skills from a project-based lesson, students can almost always apply their flexible learnings to a great range of settings, like other subject areas.
• I’ve noticed a significant increase in students’ motivation and self-esteem by working in team settings. Students who had lower drive in the classroom started to speak up and do so confidently.
To set up students for success, teachers must set clear expectations, especially if you are first exploring project-based activities with your class. Students need to know what to work toward in order to feel motivated to get there. Before diving into a PBL lesson, establish a few cooperative learning ground rules:
• Everyone should do their best to participate.
• Even in a team, each member is held accountable for their project responsibilities.
• While sharing knowledge is important, listening is more important.
• Pay attention to your problem-solving techniques and consider how they would translate to a real-world problem.
Be a leader of authentic experiences
In order for students to conceptualize what the four Cs look like in action, you must bridge the gap between classroom and the real world. Once students understand how projects in class can apply to overcoming challenges in their everyday lives, lessons become more meaningful and lasting.
One way to draw this critical connection is to lead by example. This can look different depending on your schedule and commitments, but a few ideas include:
Using PBL to develop 21st-century skills
• Join a professional association focused on technical skills development.
• Seek out summer employment in a technical skills-based environment.
• Find a volunteer opportunity that builds or uses technical knowledge.
With a firsthand perspective, you’ll better be able to illustrate exactly how jobs leverage the skills learned in school. More importantly, you’ll likely identify areas that require additional focus in your classroom so you can appropriately prepare students.
In addition to modeling techniques, connect students with their communities to create an authentic learning experience. Ask students, “what challenges are in or around your school, neighborhood or city?” When students are invited to draw from their own experiences, they have more voice and choice in the problem-solving process.
Address common challenges to PBL
Each classroom has its own set of obstacles that can hinder a cooperative learning environment. In any team-based learning scenario, students must interact with one another and, more importantly, listen to each other’s ideas. Recognizing the contributions of others doesn’t come naturally to everyone, especially young children. I consider it my responsibility to facilitate and restore balance.
Here are some examples of challenges you might encounter in the classroom. If a team is one-sided or being dominated by one or a few students, consider assigning a ‘side quest,’ or a smaller task within the lesson for that student to work through while the rest of the group works toward the larger solution. If students are shy and struggling to be heard, give the group sentence starters to share their thoughts.
To maintain focus on the mission at hand, you might find success with a ‘division of labor’ chart for the group to assign roles and be held accountable for their part of the project. This way, everyone is working toward a smaller goal to meet the larger goal.
The real-world applications of project-based learning are endless and, in the case of today’s students, essential for lasting success in college, careers and life.
Recall the four Cs. Put these skills to the test with PBL so students can discover approaches to problem-solving and learn how to translate them to their own local communities, or globally. PBL can be the launchpad for students to grow as learners and become enthusiastic about finding creative solutions to improve our world.
Looking to get started now? Consider this lesson plan to introduce your students to PBL.
The TGR:EDU Explore resources are available at tgreduexplore.org and through Discovery Education Experience‘s Corporate Education Partnerships channel. In response to the ongoing COVID-19 crisis, Discovery Education is offering schools and school systems not currently using the company’s digital services free access to Discovery Education Experience. Schools accepting this offer will have access to Discovery Education’s dynamic K-12 learning platform and its ready-to-use digital lesson plans, activities, and standards-aligned resources through the remainder of the school year. For more information, visit Discovery Education’s comprehensive Virtual Learning resource dedicated to helping educators adapt their instruction to meet today’s needs.