Addressing K-12 literacy education, literacy instruction, and literacy curriculum inequities can seem overwhelming or even impossible for teachers and administrators—but there’s hope.

How to apply the 4 pillars of opportunity in literacy instruction

Addressing the inequities in K-12 education can seem overwhelming or even impossible for teachers and administrators—but there’s hope

Here’s a framework that all schools can start using to ensure high levels of equity both for in-classroom and remote learning:

1. Quality curriculum. The first pillar of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) focuses on quality literacy curriculum and what that framework should look like. For example, is the curriculum informed by the science of reading (i.e., the evidence from vast and interdisciplinary research that has taken place over the past five decades)? Focused on reading acquisition and instruction, the research has helped inform ideas about proficient reading and how it develops. The curriculum must also be aligned to structured literacy, which helps us understand what to teach and how to teach it. Finally, what level of teacher knowledge is needed to deliver evidence-based instruction? With reading, the instruction must be explicit, with skills and concepts being taught in a direct systematic manner. All of these elements must be factored into a successful literacy curriculum.

2. High-quality assessments. Assessment is a powerful tool that helps teachers maximize impact, reduce redundancy, and allocate more time to instruction. By monitoring progress along the way, teachers can check in with students multiple times (not just once), identify areas of potential risk, and collect data that’s used to build profiles of strengths and weaknesses. Equipped with these and other measures, teachers can personalize and improve learning in a way that supports equity in literacy instruction. In addition to traditional assessments, ESSA also recommends performance-based assessments that measure things standardized, multiple-choice tests miss. High-quality, performance-based type assessments also provide a more equitable and fair testing environment that reaches a larger, more diverse student body.

3. High-quality instruction. Effective core reading instruction presents grade-level content. Concepts and skills are explicitly taught with clear goals and objectives and consistent routines that focus students’ cognitive resources on learning. The pacing of lessons keeps students actively engaged, and ongoing practice supports mastery of new learning. We want to make instruction as powerful as possible. That means thinking about resources, more instructional times, and smaller instructional groups. We also want to create targeted instruction that’s clear, systematic, and that includes opportunities for guided practices (e.g., practicing reading words and sentences and text and spelling words) and for error correction and feedback. These are all important factors for any student who is struggling with reading, and it helps educators figure out why he or she is struggling and then come with a plan of action.

4. High-quality intervention. Effective intervention, on the other hand, accelerates learning by intensifying the instruction and providing more than one year of growth for every year of instruction. This closes the gaps because the student who is receiving instruction is getting one year of growth, but the one who is getting instruction and intervention will typically come away with more than one year of growth. So, rather than asking the questions, “what tier does this student belong in?” we want to ask, “what level of intensity does this student need to respond to instruction?”

Don’t wait for failure to happen

We don’t want to wait for students to fail. We want to get these four pillars of success in place and add value before a student begins to encounter serious reading struggles. Using the proactive approach outlined above, schools will have the specific resources they need to give everyone the same opportunity to succeed. Remember, equity and improvement are both processes; they’re not events.

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